Thursday, November 12, 2009

Albi : Tarn (Albigeois)

Dépendance méridionale de la cité celte des Ruthènes (départements modernes de l'Aveyron et Nord du Tarn), la "civitas albigensium" (l'Albigeois) apparaît au Vème siècle centrée autour de la ville d'Albi (Albiga), en aval de laquelle le Tarn est navigable. On a trouvé dans la région de nombreuses pierres attestant d'une occupation humaine préhistorique (bifaces, choppers, ...). L'occupation celte a laissé des traces dans la toponymie : Ambialet (formé sur le gaulois ambe=rivière), Cambon (celtique cambo=méandre), ... Cependant, l'empreinte la plus notable relève est médiévale avec la création de villes neuves (Villefranche-d'Albigeois, Valence-d'Albigeois, Pampelonne, Monestiés, ...). La langue vernaculaire de la région d'Albi est le nord-languedocien caractérisé par un consonantisme spécifique qui le rapproche des parlers d'oc guyennais du Quercy et de l'Agenais : "ch" se prononce "ts", "tg" et "j" sont "dz" et -iss- reste identique.

A Southern dependency of the Celtic city of the Rutheni (modern département of Aveyron and Northern Tarn), "civitas albigensium" (Albigeois) appears in the Vth century, centred around the town of Albi (Albiga) where the Tarn river gets navigable. Numerous stones that prove a prehistorical human occupation were found (bifaces, choppers, ...). Celtic occupation left traces in toponymy : Ambialet (from Gaulish ambe=river), Cambon (Celtic cambo=meander), ... Nevertheless, the most stunning stamp is a medieval one with the creation of many new towns (Villefranche-d'Albigeois, Valence-d'Albigeois, Pampelonne, Monestiés, ...). The vernacular language of the region of Albi is North-Languedocian characterized by a specific consonantism that links it to other oc dialects spoken in Quercy and Agenais : "ch" is "ts", "tg" and "j" are "dz" and -iss- remains unchanged.




  • Echantillon représentatif / Sample :
Taille réelle / Full Scale


  • Analyse anthropologique sommaire / Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 :
Brun, yeux noirs rapprochés, leptomorphique, nez long et implanté haut parfois convexe, menton pointu
~ Méditerranéen

Dark, black close set eyes, leptomorphic, long and high-rooted nose that can get convex, pointy chin

~ Mediterranoid





C'est le type languedocien le plus archétypique. Il s'insère dans la variabilité du Sud-Ouest de la France. Une variante féminine caractérisée par un nez fin et convexe et une tête moins large illustre ces affinités.

This is the most archetypal Languedocian type. It's part of a greater South-Western French variability. A feminine variant noted for a fine and convex nose and a less large head illustrates quite well those affinities.


Ce type est cependant nettement concurrencé par une variante plus claire et plus robuste du même type :

This type is in clear competition with a lighter and more robust variant :




- Type 2 : Brun, yeux noirs éloignés, brachymorphique, petit nez parfois concave implanté bas
~ Alpinoïde

Dark, black and wide set eyes, brachymorphic, little and low-rooted nose that can get concave
~ Alpinoid


Ce type annonce assez clairement les phénotypes du Massif Central dominants dans le Rouergue voisin (Aveyron moderne).

This type clearly announces subtypes are found in Massif Central and which are dominating in neighbouring Rouergue (modern-day Aveyron).


Défiant toute typologie, on rencontre des individus aux traits physiques tout à fait atypiques (dont des yeux très bleus) qui tranchent avec ce que nous avons pu constater dans le Tarn méridional où les phénotypes "ibères" dominent outrageusement : l'Albigeois est une région de transition entre les montagnes du Massif Central et les coteaux de la vallée du Tarn, en liaison avec le vaste espace garonnais.

Defying typology, one can find individuals whose physical traits are quite atypical (amongst them very blue eyes) who strikingly siffer from what we noticed in Southern Tarn where "Iberian" phenotypes outrageously dominate : Albigeois is a transitional region between the mountains of Massif Central and the hillsides of the Tarn valley in contact with the vast space of the Garonne river.





  • Morphotypes finaux / Final morphotypes :

3 comments:

  1. I can't see some of your "Mediterraneans" being so. While the first guy does look a typical Western Euro-Med (aka "Latino look"), the rest mostly look Pyrenean variants, specially the guy and woman in the middle. You even claim they have "pointy chin" when they almost have no chin at all.

    What you call "lighter and more robust variant"... how do you define "lighter"? They look intermediate between Central Europe and the Pyrenees, though not sure if the CE component is "Nord" or "Balcan".

    Now, the "Alpinoid" type (left variant with robust almost deform jaw) is really curious and unique. Now we know where Tarantino's ancestors come from: the Massif Central!

    However the guy on the right is a typical Med, and could be from Naples, Madrid or Athens - IMO.

    "Defiant tout topology..." the guy in the middle has a clearly Basque face, though guess he could pass as Brit too. The other two look mostly Med to me: the one in the left is like a clone of Zilhao, the archaeologist, who is a clear case of Mediterranean type, the one of the right would look more hybrid.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Btw, may I make a request? I'd like to have a look at the people of Dordogne. It is after all the heart of pre-Neolithic Europe, so I am sure it's worth a look at its people, even if they have changed somewhat since then.

    ReplyDelete
  3. About your classifications : I tend to agree with what you stated. I may have incorporated people who were too dissimilar into my "Med" section. You're right in pointing at the "Pyrenean" character of some individuals : that's the generic SW French look. I initially thought that it would have been rarer in this region which begins to be frankly influenced by neighbouring Massif Central.

    I'll update this blog with Dordogne as it's indeed a fascinating region. Linguistically speaking though, modern Dordogne is more in a Central French variability even though I'm not sure whether or not it means something in terms of physical variability.

    ReplyDelete

J'ai choisi de laisser les commentaires ouverts. Cependant vous perdrez votre temps à me sermonner et à me traiter de fasciste (ce que je ne suis vraiment pas) : je vous prie de lire mon introduction qui saura vous rassurer quant à mes intentions. Dans l'amateurisme le plus complet, je n'agis que dans un but de connaissance. Je comprendrai aisément que vous ne partagiez pas mon intérêt pour l'histoire du peuplement du monde, abstenez-vous de vous donner facilement bonne conscience sur le dos d'un travail qui se veut avant tout documentaire et humble.

I've chosen to let people comment freely on my posts. Nevertheless, you'll lose your time taunting me and calling me a fascist (which I'm really not) : I pray you to read my introduction which will reassure that my intentions genuinely aim at achieving amateurish knowledge. I understand that you may not share my passion for the history of the peopling of the World, just don't let me know as clear conscience gained by bashing a humble documentary work is useless.

http://anthrofrance.blogspot.com/2009/05/introduction.html