Sunday, November 22, 2009

Sarlat : Dordogne (Périgord)

Cette région est connue pour la découverte de la grotte de Lascaux, témoignage spectaculaire d'art pariétal du Paléolithique, et de 5 squelettes dits de "Cro-Magnon" aux Eyzies-de-Tayac datés du Haut-Paléolithique dont la brachycéphalie contraste fortement avec la forte dolichocéphalie de "l'Homme de Chancelade" dans les environs de Périgueux plus au Nord. L'étude des sépultures mégalithiques du Périgord fait état de véritables convergences avec l'Angoumoisin voisin (dolmens dits angoumoisins) et d'une différenciation d'avec les régions pyrénéo-aquitaines.

Portion septentrionale de l'ancien évêché de Sarlat, cette région est baignée par la Vézère et la Dordogne et faisait partie de la cité celte des Petrocores ("les quatre tribus" en langue celtique, un conglomérat de 4 peuples ?). La toponymie est d'ailleurs à dominante celtique : Le Condat (du celtique "condate" pour confluent), Sireuil (suffixe -ialo=clairière), de nombreux villages avec le suffixe -ac (celtique -akos), ... La division linguistique du Périgord en deux zones assez différenciées est probablement le reliquat d'un peuplement distinct : notre zone relève du domaine linguistique guyennais (absence de palatisation de c mais le consonantisme annonce déjà le limousin parlé dans le Nord du département : s chuinté, j prononcé dz, ... ainsi que le vocalisme particulier dont [a] > [ɒ] également présent en Quercy). Vous pouvez vous donner une idée des sonorités de la langue romane du Périgord méridional via ce site : "Les communes de Dordogne".


This region is famous for its grotto of Lascaux, a spectacular testimony of parietal art from Paleolithic, and the discovery of 5 skulls known as "Cro-Magnon" in Eyzies-de-Tayac, dated from Upper Paleolithic and whose brachycephaly strikingly contracts with the strong dolichocephaly of the "Man of Chancelade" found near Périgueux, more in the North. The study of megalithic burial-places of Périgord reveals true convergences with neighbouring Western France (dolmens known as "angoumoisins") and a clear distinction from the Pyrenean-Aquitanian world.

The Vézère and Dordogne rivers run through this Northern portion of the former diocese of Sarlat which used to be part of the Celtic city of the Petrocorii ("the four tribes" in Celtic, a conglomerate ?).
Toponymy in the area is mostly Celtic : Le Condat (Celtic "condate"=confluence), Sireuil (toponym in -ialo=glade), many placenames ending in -ac (Celtic -akos), ... The linguistic divide of Périgord into two differenciated zones might be a consequence of a distinct peopling : our studied zone belongs to the Guyennais group (no palatization of c but consonantism already announces Limousin languages spoken in the North of the département : s is hissed, j is pronounced as dz, ... and vocalism is quite peculiar as well such as the mutation [a] > [ɒ] that can be found in Quercy). You can listen to the sonorities of the language of South-Périgord here : "Les communes de Dordogne".





  • Echantillon représentatif / Sample :
Taille réelle / Full Scale


  • Analyse anthropologique sommaire / Brief anthropological analysis :

- Type 1 : Brun, yeux noirs rapprochés, leptomorphique, long nez convexe et implanté haut, menton pointu
~ Dinaro-Méditerranéen

Dark, black close set eyes, leptomorphic, long and high-rooted convex nose, pointy chin

~ Dinaro-Mediterranoid



Type très classique de la France du Sud-Ouest et fréquent sur la façade atlantique. Variante plus claire (~ Dinaro-Nordique) :

Classical type of SW France and frequent on the Atlantic. A lighter variant (~ Dinaro-Nordid) :


Comme Maju le fait remarquer, cette série est complétée par un type également caractérisé par une mâchoire étroite et plus spécifiquement par un front large qui rappelle les caractéristiques du crâne de l'Homme de Chancelade (Lien vers le blog de Maju).

As Maju makes me notice, this serie is completed with a type characterized by a narrow jaw and more specifically a broad forehead which remind us of the structures of Chancelade skull structures (Link to Maju's weblog)




- Type 2 : Pigmentation intermédiaire, brachymorphique, nez implanté bas parfois concave, menton carré, tête large
~ Alpin

Intermediate pigmentation, brachymorphic, low-rooted nose that can get concave, square chin, broad head

~ Alpinid



La présence de ce type essentiellement masculin et robuste fait état des convergences phénotypiques avec la France de l'Ouest. On retrouve en effet certains types "poitevins" identifiés à Bressuire. Il rappelle de manière évidente les restes fossiles de Cro-Magnon.

The presence of this masculine and robust type hints to phenotypical convergences with Western France. Some "Poitevin" types that were identified in Bressuire can be found. He reminds us of Cro-Magnon skulls.


Enfin, on trouve in type plutôt intermédiaire avec le type 1 : c'est le type physique le plus localisé et assez caractéristique de cette région. C'est au fond le type sud-périgourdin que l'on retrouve également en Quercy (moderne département du Lot).

Eventually, an intermediate type can be found : this is the most localized physical type of all and quite representative of a South-Périgourdin type that can be found in neighbouring Quercy as well (modern département of Lot).



  • Morphotypes finaux / Final morphotypes :

3 comments:

  1. Hey, thanks, Heraus. I asked and I got. :)

    First one likely typo you have in your English version: "infamous" is not the same as "famous" or (in the French version) "connue". Infamous means famous for bad reasons, like, say, Jack the Ripper. It's the same in Spanish ("infame") so I'm puzzled you did not realize that - but maybe such word does not exist in French.

    Anyhow, don't you think that the types 1 and 2a fit well with the Chancelade skull structure?

    On the other side it can well be argued that the type 2b and 3 is more like Cro-Magnon man.

    I don't see a clear difference between 1 and 2a (the first row at "type 2" section): both have the narrow jaw and broad forehead typical of the Chancelade "Magdalenian" type, though it's more clear in some individuals in both rows: the third male of the type 1 series and all three men in the type 2a series (first row). I have more difficulties identifying female types.

    The six men from the two bottom rows (2b and 3) instead show a broader type of face that reminds of Cro-Magnon 1 (however notice that Iberian and North African CM fossils are more slender, not all prehistorical CMs were so extremely broad-faced).

    ReplyDelete
  2. You're right about infamous : I was persuaded that it was one of those "faux-amis" and that "infamous" was what in French we would have said "fameux". But for instance, how would you translate the "infamous battle of Hastings" ? Doesn't infamous somehow possess a laudative meaning ?

    BTW, I was hesitant to insist on Paleolithic types to describe modern situation but it was indeed my intention in the introduction. I initially included 2a into type 1 as you would have done but I eventually decided not to do so in order to differentiate people who had a generic SW French look from those with "broader" characteristics.

    I'll change this post accordingly.

    ReplyDelete
  3. ... how would you translate the "infamous battle of Hastings" ? -

    If French hasn't got this word (which is originally from Romance or Latin, obviously), then I might need a phrase like "sadly famous" (it's also said that way in Spanish: "tristemente famoso" - but "infame" is also used, though it's a more cult word).

    Doesn't infamous somehow possess a laudative meaning ?

    Al Capone is infamous, Einstein is famous. Both have the "laudative" meaning of fame as attribute, but Al Capone is famous for the wrong reasons, so he is infamous.

    I was hesitant to insist on Paleolithic types to describe modern situation...

    I understand that. We can speculate with such hypothetical affinities but it's difficult to assure them to any length.

    I initially included 2a into type 1 as you would have done but I eventually decided not to do so in order to differentiate people who had a generic SW French look from those with "broader" characteristics.

    Have you rearranged something? I can't make any sense of my "protest" anymore... Maybe I wrote 2a when I meant 1b?

    Anyhow, I do have the feeling that you group people with different traits. As the types are now I don't make any sense of the 1a, 2a or even 2b male rows (I'm ignoring females here because they don't help me to understand in this post either).

    In row 1a, there are three distinct types, though the two first men could be said to be Mediterranean in the Spain-Italy sense of the term (with projections to Britain?), while the third man is closer to type 1b (and I think that's what I meant before).

    In row 2a, the three types are different:
    · left: Basque robust type, with features resembling Joseba Egibar, what makes it a robust variant of Chancelade, IMO.
    · middle: Alpino-Nord. The typical US white guy.
    · right: unclear but in the Nordo-Med range. Could be found in Spain but also towards Germany.

    In row 2b, the guy in the right is different. He could be surnamed Pacheco and live in Jérez de la Frontera. Typical Mediterranean in the "purest" sense, i.e. with a West Med fundamental but also likely East Med/North African admixture. The other two have an Eastern Euro, but the first like a Russian and the latter like a Turk. However they are not "unwestern" either.

    Sorry if I'm not keeping up with conversations but I thought that Blogger would send me emails, as I get from every other blog... but the system here seems different and I'm not getting them.

    ReplyDelete

J'ai choisi de laisser les commentaires ouverts. Cependant vous perdrez votre temps à me sermonner et à me traiter de fasciste (ce que je ne suis vraiment pas) : je vous prie de lire mon introduction qui saura vous rassurer quant à mes intentions. Dans l'amateurisme le plus complet, je n'agis que dans un but de connaissance. Je comprendrai aisément que vous ne partagiez pas mon intérêt pour l'histoire du peuplement du monde, abstenez-vous de vous donner facilement bonne conscience sur le dos d'un travail qui se veut avant tout documentaire et humble.

I've chosen to let people comment freely on my posts. Nevertheless, you'll lose your time taunting me and calling me a fascist (which I'm really not) : I pray you to read my introduction which will reassure that my intentions genuinely aim at achieving amateurish knowledge. I understand that you may not share my passion for the history of the peopling of the World, just don't let me know as clear conscience gained by bashing a humble documentary work is useless.

http://anthrofrance.blogspot.com/2009/05/introduction.html